As the web continues to evolve, the selection of HTTP response headers a site is expected to support grows. Some of the security-related headers are now considered mandatory by various online publishers, including Google and Mozilla. If like me you run your site using an S3 bucket of static files, it's not easy to add the recommended headers and improve your site's security scores in tools like Mozilla's Observatory.

CloudFront and Lambda@Edge can fix that. Others have detailed the process more fully than I can but beware that some features may have changed since the older posts were written. I suggest following the article linked previously if you want to implement this for your site. I've listed some of the gotchas that slowed me down below.

Adding the right permissions to the Lambda IAM role

While creating the Lambda you will be asked to assign it a role. Make sure you add the Basic Edge Lambda template to the role you create to allow the function trigger to be created. I missed this step the first time and it took me a few tries to figure it out.

Beware of replication

When you deploy the Lambda and attach the trigger, CloudFront will create replicas of the Lambda in various regions. If you then update your function, publish a new version and redeploy, it will create more replicas. The replicas of older versions are not automatically deleted and cannot be deleted by the user at this time so they will pollute your account with potentially large numbers of unused Lambda functions. Hopefully Amazon will fix this issue at some point.

Choose your trigger wisely

CloudFront supports 4 triggers: origin-request, origin-response, viewer-request and viewer-response. The restrictions on run-time and memory size are different for different triggers so pay attention to the delays your functions introduce to the trafic flow.

The viewer triggers are run outside of CloudFront's caching layer so viewer-request is triggered before the request hits the cache and viewer-response is triggered after the response has exited the cache.

origin-response is triggered after CloudFront has found the resource but before it writes its response to its own cache. That means you can add headers and cache the result, reducing Lambda invokations and delays, keeping the cost down.

Headers and their values

I've configured CloudFront to redirect HTTP requests to my site to use HTTPS but browsers like a header to make that even clearer. HSTS or Strict-Host-Security does this job. Other than that, there's a range of headers that help the browser to mitigate the risks of XSS (Cross-site scripting) vulnerabilities. These are well documented by Mozilla so I won't rehash it all here.

The interesting one is the CSP (Content-Security-Policy) header. There are a few versions of the syntax supported by different browsers and getting it right is a little tricky. The excellent CSP Evaluator by Google is very helpful for testing wordings of the CSP. Tunine the policy to work properly with Google Analytics and allow inline stylesheets while disabling most other avenues of attack took a few attempts to get right but I'm happy with what I ended up with.

I disabled everything by default with default-src: 'none' then added the permissions I needed for my site. I use a very small inline CSS stylesheet so I needed to enable that with style-src 'self' 'unsafe-inline'. I don't make much use of images at present but if I do I'll access them over HTTPS so I enabled that with img-src 'self' https:. Opening up just the needed permissions for scripts was a bit more difficult but the CSP Evaluator helped a great deal. It recommends a strict-dynamic policy for browsers that support it. I only use one script on my site for Google Analytics, so I had to extract the contents (including all whitespace) from the <script> tag, hash it with SHA256, then encode the hash with Base64 and add the result directly to the CSP policy. CSP Evaluator also recommends some fall-back options for browsers that do not yet support strict-dynamic so I end up with script-src 'strict-dynamic' 'sha256-my_script_hash' 'unsafe-inline' https:, where my_script_hash is the Base64-encoded SHA256 hash of the contents of my script. The complete example is in the below code.

Lambda code template

My basic Lambda template for adding custom headers to all HTTP responses on my site is shared below.

'use strict';

exports.handler = (event, context, callback) => {
    function add(h, k, v) {
        h[k.toLowerCase()] = [
                key: k,
                value: v

    const response = event.Records[0].cf.response;
    const headers = response.headers;

    // hsts header at 2 years
    // Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=63072000; includeSubDomains;
    add(headers, "Strict-Transport-Security", "max-age=63072000; includeSubDomains; preload");

    // Reduce XSS risks
    add(headers, "X-Content-Type-Options", "nosniff");
    add(headers, "X-XSS-Protection", "1; mode=block");
    add(headers, "X-Frame-Options", "DENY");
    // TODO: fill in value of the sha256 hash
    const csp = "default-src 'none'" +
        "; frame-ancestors 'none'" +
        "; base-uri 'none'" +
        "; style-src 'self' 'unsafe-inline'" +
        "; img-src 'self' https:" +
        "; script-src 'strict-dynamic' 'sha256-my_script_hash' 'unsafe-inline' https:"
    add(headers, "Content-Security-Policy", csp);

    console.log('Response headers added');

    callback(null, response);